Rock Forming Minerals

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Nesosilicates

Olivine group

  • Forsterite - Mg2SiO4
  • Fayalite - Fe2SiO4

Garnet group

  • Pyrope - Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
  • Almandine - Fe3Al2(SiO4)3
  • Spessartine - Mn3Al2(SiO4)3
  • Grossular - Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
  • Andradite - Ca3Fe2(SiO4)3
  • Uvarovite - Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3
  • Hydrogrossular - Ca3Al2Si2O8(SiO4)3-m(OH)4m

Zircon group

  • Zircon - ZrSiO4
  • Thorite - (Th,U)2SiO4

Al2SiO5 group

  • Andalusite - Al2SiO5
  • Kyanite - Al2SiO5
  • Sillimanite - Al2SiO5
  • Dumortierite - Al6.5-7BO3(SiO4)3(O,OH)3
  • Topaz - Al2SiO4(F,OH)2
  • Staurolite - Fe2Al9(SiO4)4(O,OH)2
  • Sapphirine - (Mg,Fe)2Al4)6(SiO4)

Humite group

  • (Mg,Fe)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2
  • Norbergite - Mg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2
  • Chondrodite - Mg5(SiO4)(F,OH)2
  • Humite - Mg7(SiO4)(F,OH)2
  • Clinohurnite - Mg9(SiO4)(F,OH)2
  • Datolite - CaBSiO4(OH)
  • Titanite - CaTiSiO5
  • Chloritoid - (Fe,Mg,Mn)2Al4Si2O10(OH)4

Sorosilicates

General group

  • Hemimorphite (calamine) - Zn4(Si2O7)(OH)2H2O
  • Lawsonite - CaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2H2O
  • Ilvaite - CaFe2+2Fe3+O(Si2O7)(OH)

Epidote group

  • Epidote - Ca2(Al,Fe)3O(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)
  • Zoisite - Ca2Al3O(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)
  • Clinozoisite - Ca2Al3O(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)
  • Tanzanite - Ca2Al3O(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)
  • Allanite - Ca(Ce,La,Y,Ca)Al2(Fe2+,Fe3+)O(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)
  • Dollaseite-(Ce) - CaCeMg2AlSi3O11F(OH)
  • Vesuvianite (idocrase) - Ca10(Mg,Fe)2Al4(SiO4)5(Si2O7)2(OH)4

Cyclosilicates

3 - member ring

  • Benitoite - BaTi(Si3O9)

4 - member ring

  • Axinite - (Ca,Fe,Mn)3Al2(BO3)(Si4O12)(OH)

6 - member ring

  • Beryl/Emerald - Be3Al2(Si6O18)
  • Cordierite - (Mg,Fe)2Al3(Si5AlO18)
  • Tourmaline - (Na,Ca)(Al,Li,Mg)3(Al,Fe,Mn)6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)4

Inosilicates

Single chain inosilicates

Pyroxene group :

    Enstatite - orthoferrosilite series
  • Enstatite - MgSiO3
  • Hypersthene - (Mg,Fe)SiO3
  • Ferrosilite - FeSiO3
  • Pigeonite - Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)1.75Si2O6
    Diopside - hedenbergite series
  • Diopside - CaMgSi2O6
  • Hedenbergite - CaFeSi2O6
  • Augite - (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe,Al)(Si,Al)2O6
    Sodium pyroxene series
  • Jadeite - NaAlSi2O6
  • Aegirine (Acmite) - NaFe3+Si2O6
  • Spodumene - LiAlSi2O6

Pyroxenoid group :

  • Wollastonite - CaSiO3
  • Rhodonite - MnSiO3
  • Pectolite - NaCa2(Si3O8)(OH)

Double chain inosilicates

Amphibole group :

  • Anthophyllite - (Mg,Fe)7Si8O22(OH)2
    Cumingtonite series
  • Cumingtonite - Fe2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2
  • Grunerite - Fe7Si8O22(OH)2
    Tremolite series
  • Tremolite - Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2
  • Actinolite - Ca2(Mg,Fe)5Si8O22(OH)2
  • Hornblende - (Ca,Na)2-3(Mg,Fe,Al)5Si6(Al,Si)2O22(OH)2

Sodium amphibole group :

  • Glaucophane - Na2Mg3Al2Si8O22(OH)
  • Riebeckite (asbestos) - Na2Fe2+3Fe3+2Si8O22(OH)2
  • Berkevikite - Ca2(Na,K)Fe2,Mg,Fe3,Mn)5 (Si6Al2)22)OH2
  • Arfvedsonite - Na3(Fe,Mg)4FeSi8O22(OH)2

Phyllosilicates

Serpentine group :

  • Antigorite - Mg3Si2O5(OH)4
  • Chrysotile - Mg3Si2O5(OH)4
  • Lizardite - Mg3Si2O5(OH)4

Clay mineral group :

  • Kaolinite - Al2Si2O5(OH)4
  • Illite - (K,H3O)(Al,Mg,Fe)2(Si,Al)4O10[(OH)2,(H2O)]
  • Montmorillonite - (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2nH2O
  • Vermiculite - (MgFe,Al)3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)24H2O
  • Talc - Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
  • Palygorskite - (Mg,Al)2Si4O10(OH)4(H2O)
  • Pyrophylite - Al2Si4O10(OH)2

Mica group :

  • Biotite - K(Mg,Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
  • Muscovite - KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
  • Phlogopite - KMg3Si4O10(OH)2
  • Lepidolite - K(Li,Al)2-3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
  • Margarite - CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
  • Glauconite - (K,Na)(Al,Mg,Fe)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2

Chlorite group :

  • Chlorite - (Mg,Fe)3(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2.(Mg,Fe)3(OH)6

Tectosilicates

Quartz group

  • Quartz - SiO2
  • Tridymite - SiO2
  • Cristobalite - SiO2

Feldspar group

Alkali - feldspars

  • Potassium - feldspars
  • Microcline - KAlSi3O8
  • Orthoclase - KAlSi3O8
  • Sanidine - KAlSi3O8
  • Anorthoclase - (Na,K)AlSi3O8

Plagioclase - feldspars

  • Albite - NaAlSi3O8
  • Oligoclase - (Na,Ca)(Si,Al)4O8(Na:Ca 4:1)
  • Andesine - (Na,Ca)(Si,Al)4O8(Na:Ca 3:2)
  • Labradorite - (Na,Ca)(Si,Al)4O8(Na:Ca 2:3)
  • Bytownite - (Na,Ca)(Si,Al)4O8(Na:Ca 1:4)
  • Anorthite - CaAl2Si2O8

Feldspathoid group

  • Nosean - Na8Al6Si6O24(SO4)
  • Cancrinite - Na6Ca2(CO3,Al6Si6O24)2H2O
  • Leucite - KAlSi2O6
  • Nepheline - (Na,K)AlSiO4
  • Sodalite - Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2
  • Hauyne - (Na,Ca)4-8Al6Si6(O,S)24(SO4,Cl)1-2
  • Lazurite - (Na,Ca)8(AlSiO4)6(SO4,S,Cl)2
  • Petalite - LiAlSi4O10

Scapolite group

  • Marialite - Na4(AlSi3O8)3(Cl2,CO3,SO4)
  • Meionite - Ca4(Al2Si2O8)3(Cl2CO3,SO4)
  • Analcime - NaAlSi2O6.H2O

Zeolite group

  • Natrolite - Na2Al2Si3O10.2H2O
  • Chabazite - CaAl2Si4O12.6H2O
  • Heulandite - CaAl2Si7O18.6H2O
  • Stilbite - NaCa2Al5Si13O36.17H2O

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